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CIE Collection in Photobiology and Photochemistry, 1999

CIE 134-1999

ISBN 978 3 900734 94 7

This volume contains short Technical Reports prepared by various Technical Committees within CIE Division 6.

134/1 TC 6-26 report: Standardization of the Terms UV-A1, UV-A2 and UV-B

The terms UV-A, UV-B and UV-C were introduced in the 1930's by CIE Committee 41 on Ultraviolet Radiation as a short-hand notation for photobiological spectral bands. It was never intended that the bands were exclusive for different effects. The bands have been in widespread use in different medical fields and scientific research. UV-A and UV-B were divided at 315 nm by the CIE. In recent decades, some photodermatologists and others have used different dividing lines such as 320 nm without recognizing the importance of maintaining an international standardized terminology. Because the terminology is used in many fields, this report recommends that the 315 nm division between UV-A and UV-B be maintained. However, recent research has clearly shown a difference in the photobiological interaction of long and short wavelength UV-A radiation with DNA. This led to a further division of UV-A into UV-A1 and UV-A2 with a dividing line at approximately 340 nm. While this division may be of value, the committee does not recommend officially to split UV-A into these two sub-bands at this time. Further research may justify a dividing line different from 340 nm in the future.

The following members of TC 6-26 took part in the preparation of this Technical Report:

  • J. Barth, Germany
  • J. Cadet, France
  • J.P. Césarini, France (Chairman)
  • T.B. Fitzpatrick, USA
  • A. McKinlay, Great Britain
  • M. Mutzhas, Germany
  • M. Pathak, USA
  • M. Peak, USA
  • D. Sliney, USA
  • F. Urbach, USA

134/2 TC 6-30 report: UV Protection of the Eye

This report provides a review on the current methods for UV dosimetry for the human cornea. The contents include a human action spectrum, the dosimeters, the methodology for calibration and the calculation of cumulative exposures. Based on the existing data, the levels of protection for the UV-A band and the UV-B band are recommended. A set of guidelines for ocular protection is proposed to assist medical practitioners in providing eye protection for patients.

The following members of TC 6-30 took part in the preparation of this Technical Report:

  • P. Gies, Australia
  • D.G. Pitts, USA
  • F.S. Rosenthal, USA
  • C. Roy, Australia
  • J. Silver, Great Britain
  • D. Sliney, USA
  • H.R. Taylor, Australia
  • C.F. Wong, Australia (Chairman)

134/3 TC 6-38 report: Recommendation on Photobiological Safety of Lamps. A review of Standards

There are well known optical radiation hazards associated with some lamps and lamp systems. However, serious concerns about optical radiation hazards from lamps are rare except with regard to very special applications. Aside from solaria and germicidal lamps the lighting community has seldom had to be concerned with photobiological hazards of lamps. In most general illumination and industrial applications the ultraviolet radiation (UV), visible light and infrared energies emitted by artificial sources are not hazardous. However, in some unusual situations, potentially hazardous levels are accessible, and excessive light and infrared radiation are typically filtered or baffled to reduce discomfort. The natural aversion response of the eye to bright light, as well as thermal discomfort sensed by the skin normally will limit potentially hazardous exposure.

In some applications, questions have been posed as to whether human exposure may be potentially hazardous. For example, heat lamps used for treating plastics; the use of some arc lamps in research laboratories; the use of very high intensity flash lamps in photography; infrared lamps used in surveillance and in heat treating; in some diagnostic medical applications and testing; and even in printing and photocopying.

CIE TC 6-38 investigates in the present Technical Report the potential photobiological hazards, reviews the world wide activity in the field of producing a photobiological lamp safety standard, and recommends that the CIE prepare a lamp safety standard using as the basis, the North American IESNA standards. The philosophy embodied in those standards have addressed the concerns of occupational health and safety professionals and have been worked out and tested over a number of years. Most major lamp companies have participated in the IESNA development effort, and it is in consonance with ICNIRP guidelines. Requirements for lamp types, including labelling would be developed by IEC TC/34.

The following members of TC 6-38 took part in the preparation of this Technical Report:

  • M. Hietanen, Finland
  • R. Landry USA
  • A. McKinlay, Great Britain
  • J. Mellerio, Great Britain
  • B. Muel, France
  • K. Schulmeister, Austria
  • R. Sutter, Germany
  • P. Drop, The Netherlands, IEC TC/34 Liaison

The publication contains also a list of CIE Publications prepared within Division 6.

The reports are written in English, with short summaries in French and German. The complete publication consists of 55 pages, with 5 figures and 14 tables.

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